Section 92 IPC: Act Done in Good Faith for Benefit of a Person Without Consent

In the intricate legal landscape of India, the Indian Penal Code (IPC) holds a pivotal position, governing various aspects of criminal law. Section 92 of the IPC, titled “Act done in good faith for the benefit of a person without consent,” is a provision that aims to strike a balance between the interests of individuals and the need for societal welfare.

section 92 ipc

In this article, we will delve into the nuances of Section 92, exploring its applicability, implications, and the concept of acting in “good faith” under Indian criminal law.

Understanding Section 92 IPC

Introduction to Section 92 IPC

Section 92 IPC is a unique provision that deals with situations where individuals act with the intention of benefiting someone else but without obtaining their consent. It acknowledges that there may be instances where individuals act altruistically for the greater good, even if it involves infringing on another person’s rights.

Good Faith and Its Significance

To comprehend Section 92 fully, we must grasp the concept of “good faith.” In legal terms, acting in good faith means acting honestly, without malice, and with the belief that one’s actions are for the benefit of another person. This provision acknowledges the importance of good intentions in law.

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Acts Done in Emergency

One of the primary scenarios where Section 92 comes into play is during emergencies. If an individual acts in good faith to prevent a more significant harm or to save someone’s life without their consent, this provision offers protection against potential criminal liability.

Examples of Section 92 Cases

  • Medical Emergencies: A doctor performing a life-saving surgery on an unconscious patient without obtaining prior consent may be protected under Section 92 if their actions were in good faith.
  • Rescue Operations: A passerby forcibly breaking into a burning building to rescue trapped occupants can argue that their actions were done in good faith for the benefit of others.

Limitations and Safeguards

While Section 92 provides a legal shield for acts done in good faith, it is not absolute. Courts carefully examine each case to determine whether the actions genuinely meet the criteria of good faith. The burden of proving good faith rests on the accused.

The Controversy Surrounding Section 92 IPC

Balancing Individual Rights and Public Welfare

One of the significant debates concerning Section 92 revolves around the delicate balance between individual rights and the greater good. Critics argue that allowing individuals to act without consent, even in good faith, can lead to potential abuse of power.

Legal Precedents

Several legal precedents have shaped the interpretation of Section 92. Landmark cases have shed light on the boundaries of good faith and the circumstances under which this provision can be invoked.


Section 92 of the Indian Penal Code serves as a crucial legal provision that acknowledges the importance of acting in good faith for the benefit of others. It strikes a balance between individual rights and societal welfare, recognizing that in emergencies or situations where immediate action is required, individuals may act with the best of intentions. However, it is essential to understand the limitations and safeguards associated with this provision to prevent potential misuse.

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Yes, courts carefully scrutinize cases invoking Section 92 to ensure that the actions meet the criteria of good faith. The burden of proving good faith lies with the accused.

No, Section 92 primarily applies to actions taken for the benefit of others without their consent. Self-defense cases are typically governed by different legal provisions.

Some landmark cases, such as those involving medical emergencies and rescue operations, have contributed to the interpretation of Section 92.

The concept of “good faith” is not explicitly defined in Section 92, but it generally involves acting honestly, without malice, and for the benefit of another person. Courts evaluate each case individually to assess the presence of good faith.