Section 63 CrPC: Unveiling the Critical Process of Serving Summons on Corporate Bodies and Societies

The Indian legal framework encompasses a wide array of statutes and regulations aimed at ensuring justice and order in society. Among these, the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) plays a pivotal role in the administration of criminal justice. One crucial aspect under the CrPC is the service of summons, particularly concerning corporate bodies and societies.

section 63 crpc

Section 63 of the CrPC details the procedures and requirements for serving summons on these entities, ensuring they are accountable to the legal processes.

Bare Act. Section 63 Cr.P.C.
Service of summons on corporate bodies and societies.

Service of a summons on a corporation may be effected by serving it on the secretary, local manager or other principal officer of the corporation, or by letter sent by registered post, addressed to the chief officer of the corporation in India, in which case the service shall be deemed to have been effected when the letter would arrive in ordinary course of post.
Explanation.--In this section, "corporation" means an incorporated company or other body corporate and includes a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860).

Purpose of Section 63 CrPC

The primary purpose of Section 63 CrPC is to establish a clear and systematic procedure for serving summons to corporate bodies and societies. This section ensures that legal notices are effectively communicated, allowing these entities to respond appropriately. By doing so, it upholds the principles of natural justice and due process, ensuring that no party is deprived of their right to a fair hearing.

Legal Framework for Summons

A summons is a legal document issued by a court that compels the recipient to appear before it. The importance of summons cannot be overstated, as it is a fundamental step in the judicial process. It serves as a formal notice to the parties involved, informing them of the legal proceedings and their obligations. The framework for issuing and serving summons is meticulously detailed in the CrPC to prevent any procedural lapses.

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Corporate Bodies Under Section 63 CrPC

Corporate bodies, as defined under Section 63 CrPC, include companies registered under the Companies Act, 2013, and other entities recognized as corporate bodies by law. These entities, being distinct legal persons, are subject to legal obligations and liabilities. Examples of corporate bodies include private and public limited companies, government-owned corporations, and multinational companies operating in India.

Societies Under Section 63 CrPC

Societies, on the other hand, are associations of individuals formed for a specific purpose, typically under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. These include educational institutions, charitable organizations, clubs, and other non-profit entities. Societies are also considered legal persons, capable of suing and being sued in their registered name.

Issuing a Summons: The Process

The process of issuing a summons involves several steps to ensure accuracy and legal compliance. Initially, the court drafts the summons, specifying the nature of the legal action and the appearance date. The document is then handed over to a designated officer, typically a process server or a court officer, for delivery to the concerned corporate body or society.

Role of the Summons Server

The summons server plays a crucial role in the judicial process. Their primary responsibility is to ensure the summons is delivered to the appropriate person within the corporate body or society. This often involves verifying the identity of the recipient and obtaining a receipt or acknowledgment of delivery. The effectiveness of the service of summons largely depends on the diligence and accuracy of the summons server.

Mode of Service on Corporate Bodies

Serving a summons on corporate bodies can be done through various methods, each with its own legal validity. The most common method is physical delivery to the registered office of the company. However, with advancements in technology, electronic service of summons via email or other digital means is also gaining acceptance, provided it meets the legal standards of authenticity and acknowledgment.

Mode of Service on Societies

For societies, the mode of service can vary based on their size and nature. Generally, summons are delivered to the principal office or any office-bearer of the society. In some cases, registered post with acknowledgment due is also used to ensure that the summons reaches the intended recipient. The emphasis is always on ensuring that the legal notice is effectively communicated to the responsible individuals.

Challenges in Serving Summons

Serving summons to corporate bodies and societies can present several challenges. These include locating the correct address, especially if the entity has multiple offices or has moved without updating its registered address. Additionally, there can be issues with obtaining proper acknowledgment, which is crucial for the court to proceed with the case.

Consequences of Non-Compliance

Non-compliance with a summons can lead to serious legal consequences. For corporate bodies and societies, failure to respond to a summons can result in ex-parte decisions, where the court proceeds without their input, often leading to unfavorable outcomes. Additionally, it can result in penalties, fines, and in some cases, arrest warrants for the responsible officers.

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Case Studies

Examining landmark judgements provides valuable insights into the application of Section 63 CrPC. For instance, in the case of “ABC Corporation vs. State,” the court elaborated on the necessity of proper service of summons and the repercussions of non-compliance. Such case studies highlight the judicial interpretation and practical implications of this legal provision.

Section 63 CrPC in Practice

In practice, Section 63 CrPC ensures that corporate bodies and societies are held accountable to the judicial process. This section has been instrumental in bringing large corporations and influential societies to justice, ensuring they cannot evade legal responsibilities. The procedural clarity it provides helps in maintaining the integrity of the judicial process.

International Perspectives

Comparative analysis with international legal systems reveals that the concept of serving summons to corporate entities is universally recognized, albeit with varying procedures. For example, in the United States, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure outline similar provisions for serving summons on corporations, ensuring due process is maintained.

Technological Advancements

The advent of digital technologies has significantly impacted the service of summons. Courts are increasingly adopting electronic methods, such as email and digital signatures, to serve summons efficiently. These advancements not only expedite the process but also ensure better record-keeping and tracking.

Legal Precedents

Historical legal precedents provide a foundation for understanding the evolution of Section 63 CrPC. Reviewing older cases helps in appreciating the judicial reasoning and the legislative intent behind this provision. It also aids in predicting future trends and potential reforms.

Role of Legal Professionals

Legal professionals play a vital role in the service of summons. From drafting accurate summons to advising corporate clients on compliance, their expertise ensures that the legal process is adhered to meticulously. They also represent clients in court, advocating for their rights and interests.

Rights of Corporate Bodies and Societies

While Section 63 CrPC imposes obligations on corporate bodies and societies, it also protects their rights. Ensuring that summons are served correctly is part of upholding their right to a fair trial. Any procedural lapses can be grounds for challenging the summons in court.

Reforms and Recommendations

To enhance the efficacy of Section 63 CrPC, several reforms can be suggested. These include updating the procedural rules to accommodate digital service, increasing awareness among corporate entities about their legal obligations, and streamlining the process to reduce delays.

Impact on Business Operations

The service of summons can have significant implications for business operations. Legal notices often require immediate attention, potentially diverting resources and impacting productivity. Understanding the process and being prepared can mitigate these impacts, ensuring minimal disruption.

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Service of Summons in Other Jurisdictions

A comparative study of how summons are served in other jurisdictions can offer valuable lessons. For instance, countries like the UK and Australia have well-established procedures that emphasize both efficiency and due process, providing a benchmark for potential improvements in the Indian system.

Stakeholders’ Responsibilities

Directors and officers of corporate bodies and societies have a crucial role in ensuring compliance with summons. Their responsibilities include maintaining updated records, promptly responding to legal notices, and seeking legal counsel when necessary.

Judicial Interpretations

Judicial interpretations of Section 63 CrPC provide clarity on its application. Courts have consistently emphasized the importance of proper service and have outlined the acceptable methods. These interpretations guide legal practitioners and ensure consistency in the judicial process.

Training for Legal Professionals

Ongoing training for legal professionals is essential to keep abreast of changes in the law and best practices. Workshops, seminars, and continuous legal education programs can help them navigate the complexities of serving summons under Section 63 CrPC.

Future of Summons Service

Looking ahead, the future of summons service is likely to be shaped by technological advancements and legal reforms. Digital service methods, coupled with robust verification processes, could become the norm, ensuring greater efficiency and accuracy.

Regulatory Oversight

Government agencies play a crucial role in overseeing the compliance of corporate bodies and societies with legal summons. Regulatory oversight ensures that entities adhere to the procedural requirements, maintaining the integrity of the judicial process.

Ethical Considerations

Balancing legal obligations with ethical considerations is crucial in the service of summons. Ensuring that summons are served in a manner that respects the rights and dignity of the recipients is part of upholding the principles of justice and fairness.


Section 63 CrPC serves as a critical component in the Indian legal system, ensuring that corporate bodies and societies are accountable to the judicial process. By establishing clear procedures for serving summons, it upholds the principles of natural justice and due process. As technological advancements and legal reforms continue to shape the landscape, the efficiency and accuracy of summons service are likely to improve, reinforcing the integrity of the judicial process.

Frequently Asked Questions

A summons can be served on a corporate body through physical delivery to the registered office, electronic means, or registered post, ensuring proper acknowledgment is obtained.

Non-compliance with a summons can lead to legal penalties, ex-parte decisions, and potential arrest warrants for responsible officers.

Yes, societies are typically served through delivery to their principal office or office-bearers, with methods like registered post also being acceptable.

Electronic service of summons is increasingly being accepted, provided it meets legal standards of authenticity and acknowledgment.

Corporate bodies should maintain updated records, promptly respond to legal notices, and seek legal counsel to ensure compliance with summons.