Section 54 CrPC: Examination of Arrested Person by Medical Practitioner at the Request of the Arrested Person

Section 54 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) is a crucial provision that safeguards the rights of individuals under arrest. This section empowers arrested persons to request a medical examination by a medical practitioner, ensuring their well-being and protecting them from potential abuse or maltreatment while in custody.

section 54 crpc

In this article, we delve into the intricacies of Section 54 CrPC, exploring its legal framework, significance, and practical implications.

Bare Act. Section 54 Cr.P.C.
Examination of arrested person by medical officer.

(1) When any person is arrested, he shall be examined by a medical officer in the service of Central or State Government, and in case the medical officer is not available, by a registered medical practitioner soon after the arrest is made:
Provided that where the arrested person is a female, the examination of the body shall be made only by or under the supervision of a female medical officer, and in case the female medical officer is not available, by a female registered medical practitioner.
(2) The medical officer or a registered medical practitioner so examining the arrested person shall prepare the record of such examination, mentioning therein any injuries or marks of violence upon the person arrested, and the approximate time when such injuries or marks may have been inflicted.
(3) Where an examination is made under sub-section (1), a copy of the report of such examination shall be furnished by the medical officer or registered medical practitioner, as the case may be, to the arrested person or the person nominated by such arrested person.] STATE AMENDMENT
Uttar Pradesh
In section 54 of the said Code, the following sentence shall be inserted at the end, namely :---
"The registered medical practitioner shall forthwith furnish to the arrested person a copy of the report of such examination free of cost."
[Vide Uttarkhand Act 1 of 1984, s. 7]

1. Subs. by Act 5 of 2009, s. 8, for section 54 (w.e.f. 31-12-2009).

Understanding Section 54 CrPC

Section 54 of the CrPC grants an arrested individual the right to request a medical examination by a registered medical practitioner. This provision is designed to ensure that any signs of physical abuse, injury, or illness are documented and addressed promptly. The examination serves as a safeguard against mistreatment and helps maintain the integrity of the criminal justice system.

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The Legal Framework of Section 54 CrPC

Under Section 54 CrPC, when a person is arrested, they have the right to request a medical examination by a registered medical practitioner. This request can be made either to the officer in charge of the police station or to the magistrate. The examination must be conducted without delay, and a report of the examination must be prepared and submitted.

The provision explicitly states that the examination is to be conducted at the request of the arrested person, ensuring that their consent and initiative are respected. This empowers individuals to seek medical attention if they suspect any mistreatment or if they are suffering from any medical condition that requires immediate attention.

Significance of Section 54 CrPC

Section 54 CrPC plays a vital role in protecting the rights and health of arrested individuals. It serves multiple purposes:

  1. Protection Against Abuse: By allowing arrested persons to request a medical examination, the provision acts as a deterrent against police brutality and abuse. The presence of a medical report can provide crucial evidence in cases of custodial violence.
  2. Medical Attention: The provision ensures that individuals receive timely medical attention, which can be critical in cases of pre-existing medical conditions or injuries sustained during the arrest.
  3. Documentation of Injuries: A medical examination provides an official record of any injuries or health conditions, which can be used as evidence in legal proceedings. This documentation is essential for holding law enforcement accountable.
  4. Upholding Human Rights: The provision aligns with the broader principles of human rights, emphasizing the dignity and well-being of individuals in custody. It ensures that their basic rights are protected, even while under arrest.

Procedure for Requesting a Medical Examination

The procedure for requesting a medical examination under Section 54 CrPC is straightforward but must be followed meticulously to ensure compliance with legal requirements.

  1. Making the Request: The arrested person must clearly communicate their request for a medical examination to the officer in charge or the magistrate. This request can be made verbally or in writing.
  2. Conducting the Examination: Upon receiving the request, the officer or magistrate must arrange for a registered medical practitioner to conduct the examination. This should be done without undue delay to ensure the timely documentation of any injuries or medical conditions.
  3. Preparation of the Report: The medical practitioner must prepare a detailed report of the examination, noting any injuries, health conditions, or signs of abuse. This report must be submitted to the appropriate authorities and made available to the arrested person.
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Challenges and Practical Considerations

While Section 54 CrPC provides a robust mechanism for protecting the rights of arrested individuals, there are several challenges and practical considerations that must be addressed.

  1. Awareness: Many arrested individuals may not be aware of their rights under Section 54 CrPC. Ensuring that individuals are informed about their rights and the procedure for requesting a medical examination is crucial.
  2. Timeliness: Delays in conducting medical examinations can undermine the effectiveness of the provision. Law enforcement agencies must prioritize these requests and ensure that examinations are conducted promptly.
  3. Quality of Examination: The quality and thoroughness of the medical examination are critical. Medical practitioners must be adequately trained and equipped to conduct comprehensive examinations and document their findings accurately.
  4. Accessibility: Ensuring that medical practitioners are accessible, especially in remote or rural areas, is essential for the effective implementation of Section 54 CrPC. Authorities must address logistical challenges to facilitate timely medical examinations.

Case Studies and Precedents

To understand the practical application and impact of Section 54 CrPC, it is helpful to examine case studies and legal precedents. These examples highlight how the provision has been used to protect the rights of arrested individuals and ensure justice.

Case Study 1: Protection Against Custodial Violence

In a landmark case, an arrested individual requested a medical examination under Section 54 CrPC after alleging police brutality. The medical examination revealed multiple injuries consistent with the individual’s claims. The medical report played a crucial role in the subsequent legal proceedings, leading to accountability and justice for the victim.

Case Study 2: Addressing Medical Needs

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In another instance, an arrested person with a pre-existing medical condition requested a medical examination to ensure proper treatment while in custody. The examination confirmed the need for medical attention, prompting the authorities to provide the necessary care. This case underscores the importance of Section 54 CrPC in addressing the medical needs of arrested individuals.

The Role of Legal Practitioners

Legal practitioners play a vital role in advocating for the rights of arrested individuals under Section 54 CrPC. Lawyers and legal aid organizations must educate their clients about their rights and assist them in navigating the procedure for requesting a medical examination. Effective legal representation can ensure that the provision is utilized effectively to protect the rights and well-being of arrested persons.

International Perspectives

The principles underlying Section 54 CrPC are not unique to India. Many countries have similar provisions aimed at protecting the rights of arrested individuals and ensuring their well-being in custody. Comparing these international practices can provide valuable insights into best practices and potential improvements.


Section 54 CrPC is a crucial legal provision that upholds the rights and dignity of arrested individuals. By allowing them to request a medical examination, it provides a safeguard against abuse, ensures timely medical attention, and maintains the integrity of the criminal justice system.

Awareness, timely implementation, and quality of medical examinations are essential for the effective functioning of this provision. Legal practitioners, law enforcement agencies, and civil society must work together to ensure that the rights of arrested individuals are protected, promoting a fair and humane criminal justice system.

Frequently Asked Questions

It protects the rights of arrested persons by preventing abuse, ensuring timely medical attention, and providing documentation for legal proceedings.

The request can be made verbally or in writing to the officer in charge or the magistrate, who must arrange for the examination without delay.

The report should document any injuries, health conditions, or signs of abuse, providing detailed findings for legal purposes.

Challenges include lack of awareness, delays in examinations, quality of medical assessments, and accessibility to medical practitioners.

Lawyers and legal aid organizations educate clients about their rights, assist with the examination request process, and ensure that the provision is utilized effectively.